Friday, May 22, 2009

Evaluation Method: The CIPP Model

Evaluation is methodologically diverse using both qualitative and quantitative methods, including case studies, survey research, statistical analysis and model building among other.

Dr. Rosita Santos cited Stufflebeam (1983) who developed a very useful approach in educational evaluation known as the CIPP or Context, Input, Process, Product approach (although this model has since then been expanded to CIPPOI (where the ast stand for Outcome and Impact respectively).

The CIPP systematizes the way to evaluate the different dimensions and aspects of curriculum development and the sum total of student experiences in the educative process. The model require the stakeholders be involved in the evaluation process. In this approach, the user is asked to to go through a series of questions in the context, inputs, process and product stages. Some questions are listed below:

1. Context
What is the relation of the course to other courses?
Is the time adequate?
What are the critical or important external factors?
Should courses be integrated or separate?
What are the links between the course ad research/extensions service?
Is there a need for the course?
Is the course relevant to job needs?

2. Inputs
What is the entering ability of students?
What are the learning skills of students?
What is the motivation of students?
What are the living conditions of students?
What is the students' existing knowledge?
Are the aims suitable?
Do the objectives derive from aims?
Are the aims SMART?
Is the course content clearly defined?
Does the content match student abilities?
Is the content relevant to practical problems?
What is the theory/practice balance?
What resources/equipment are available?
What books do teachers have?
What books do the students have?
How strong are the teaching skills of teachers?
What time is available compared with the workload for preparation?
What KAS related to the subject, do the teachers have?
How supportive is the classroom environment?
How many students are there?
How many teachers are there?
How is the course organized?
What regulations relate to training?

3. Process
What is the workload of students?
How well/actively do students participate?
Are there any problems related to teaching?
Are there any problems related to learning?
Is there an effective 2-way communications?
Is knowledge only transferred to students, or do they use and apply it?
Are there any problems which students face in using/applying/analyzing the knowledge and skills?
Are the teaching and learning affected by practical/institutional problems?
What is the level of cooperation/interpersonal relations between teachers/students?
How is discipline maintained?

4. Product
Is there one final exam at the end or several during the course?
Is there any informal assessment?
What is the quality of assessment (what levels of KSA are assessed?)
What are the students' KSA levels after the course?
How do students use what they have learned?
How was the over-all experience for the teachers and for the students?
What are the main lessons learned?
Is there an official report?
Has the teachers' reputation improved or been ruined as a result?

The guide questions are not answered by the teacher only or by a single individual. Instead, there are m,any ways in which they can be answered. Some of the more common methods are listed below:

1. discussion with class
2. informal conversation or observation
3. individual student interviews
4. evaluation forms
5. observation in class/session of teacher/trainer by colleagues
6. video-tape of own teaching (micro-teaching)
7. organizational document
8. participant contract
9. performance test
10. questionnaire
11. self-assessment
12. written test


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